As you level, you will buy new ranks of spells. If you splurge out on an item upgrade, you will not have enough gold readily available to upgrade to the latest ranks of spells: placing you behind. Moreover, you can buy gear upgrades from the Auction House (AH) or vendors. Furthermore, you may have large investments that need to be paid for professors. You will need to purchase reagents and items such as leather, bolts of cloth, alchemy supplies – unless you have a charitable friend or another high-level alt.
“What will be most interesting, and you alluded to this correctly, which is: what are the systems that people gravitate to that modern WoW has moved on past, but really have a strong hook? Whether it be the travel, whether it be the no flying,” mused Brack. “I mean I’m sure you’re familiar with the saga of different kind of flying motifs that we’ve done over the years. I think we finally ended up at a good compromise, but certainly flying will not be a part of Classic.”
Nov 15 Thank you for the demo I just want to say thank you to Blizzard for the demo. I seriously had so much fun - so much more fun than I've had trying to play wow in YEARS. I know not everything was 100% accurate to classic, but it was just a demo so that doesn't worry me too much. I still had a million times more fun playing that demo than retail in any case. THE THINGS I LOVED: (1) I died so much. Like... SO MUCH, and that's alright! Once I finally finished whatever it was I was doing, it felt really rewarding! My group and I were actually laughing when we party wiped. No one insulted anyone or pointed blame, we just had fun. (2) Things took time. The journey mattered, it wasn't just about hitting end game asap. I felt accomplished at the end of all those time consuming things I did. (3) I had fun exploring! I spent so much time just running around, not knowing what the heck to do, but that was FUN. I had FUN getting lost and finding treasure chests. (4) Seeing the classic models again! Tbh, the races all look rubbery and stupid now... I honestly think the old racial looks are nicer. (5) Reading quests was necessary again, so the story mattered to me. No one booted me from the party for "taking too long" because I wanted to read. (6) The community! There were actually people doing RP stuff and talking in character. Everyone in the chat was just having fun. (7) All of the inconveniences - running out of mana, no mounts, running slowly on foot, little or no flightpaths... These things are fun because they're not just handed to me. I had to work hard and play the game to get things. (8) People constantly buffed other players, because that small boost could be the reason you didn't die when a roaming centaur attacked you from behind. THE THINGS I WAS CONCERNED ABOUT: (1) I've heard rumors about possible sharding... PLEASE DO NOT SHARD. PLEASE. I can understand if it's temporary just for the initial launch, and only for starting zones. I think that is a decent enough compromise for the inevitable problem of overpopulation for the first few weeks. But if we're talking about full scale realm sharding, PLEASE DO NOT! Cross-realm features and sharding are what ruined communities in wow, same with dungeon finder and other such things, and these features are very unwanted for a classic player like me. (2) The elite raptor I tamed as a hunter was not stronger than the non-elite raptor I tamed at the same level. In classic, elite animals had better stats as hunter pets once tamed, compared to the same non-elite version of that animal at the same level. (3) I think the mana and health regen rates were a bit too high? I'm not certain, but if they were I honestly want them to be genuine. It's okay if it's hard - challenges make games fun! Anyway, thank you again! I had a ton of fun, and as long as classic is true to classic with all of its pros AND cons, I feel certain that it will be a success.Sarai10 Nov 15
And for talent builds. I prefer to make my own talent builds. But I've been playing RPGs since the 8bit days so half the fun is building my own characters up. I already made and bookmarked 1 deep fire mage build, 2 elemental mage builds, and 2 deep frost mage builds. And I might remake them tomorrow if I read up on any good talent choices I left out my 1st 5 times lol. And I have multiple builds for the other classes I play too.
Always sell all items on Auction House. If you are not sure about its value, then check the market. There are some risks that item won’t be sold and you will lose money just putting it on Auction House. Good idea to make bank low level characters and keep everything there until the weekend. All sales increasing on Friday, Saturday and Sunday. Besides, you can advertise in a trade channel to inform people that an item you are selling has been put on Auction House.
Nov 15 Guild Banks Pt. 14 So let's take our minds off subs and sharding and have a nice classic discussion about guild banks. Guild banks are still by far the least impactful on gameplay and most spirit of Vanilla community change one could request. Not only that the log keeps officers and gm's honest. Without logs they are free to skim off the top of donations and trivialize their epic mount purchase. Thoughts?Padrepwn91 Nov 15
As you level, you will buy new ranks of spells. If you splurge out on an item upgrade, you will not have enough gold readily available to upgrade to the latest ranks of spells: placing you behind. Moreover, you can buy gear upgrades from the Auction House (AH) or vendors. Furthermore, you may have large investments that need to be paid for professors. You will need to purchase reagents and items such as leather, bolts of cloth, alchemy supplies – unless you have a charitable friend or another high-level alt.
I hate to be the one to say this, but let’s face it: we’re not little kids any more. Even for those of us who played Vanilla when they were well into their adult years will have gotten 14 years older, 14 years wiser, and up to 14 years more experienced with video games. What does that mean for Classic WoW? Well for starters, the grand majority of people who are interested in Classic will now have full time jobs. Some might have families and kids they didn’t have before. Basically, WoW Classic won’t be a big of a chunk in people’s lives as it was back then. Considering how much time you will really need to put into Classic WoW to enjoy everything it has to offer, that might be an issue. Stringing together 40-odd people to storm Blackwing Lair might be significantly more difficult now than it was back then. However, due to the issues I talked about in the paragraph above, it might not need to be the long, arduous hours that many people put into Vanilla raiding. With the right preparation and knowledge, raids in Classic will most likely take considerably less time to complete than they did in Vanilla, which will hopefully counteract the fact that the majority of players will have less overall time and fewer long chunks of time to play. 6. Conclusion In essence, the game itself might not be changing from Vanilla to Classic WoW, but the knowledge and mindset of the players of the game will considerably change the way the game feels. Everyone probably figures that there won’t be that same sense of wonder that Vanilla WoW brought so long ago, and that’s true. Nostalgia can only carry Classic WoW so far. Thankfully, I believe that there is some truly solid game design inVanilla WoW, and the fact that Blizzard have doubled down on creating a verbatim experience for Classic WoW is something that people have been adamant about since the day they announced its release. Only time will tell if ClassicWoW truly is the thing people have been wanting, or whether the new CEO ofBlizzard Jay Allen Brack was right – we thought we wanted it, but we didn’t.
Making "new" guides seems kinda out of place. Not only is there still alot of information from back then available, there came alot of information up for minmaxing available for both leveling and raiding, ontop of various bis gear lists that cover patch progression aswell if necessary. Wether people like or dislike pservers does not make the various information found on their forums less valuable.

“What will be most interesting, and you alluded to this correctly, which is: what are the systems that people gravitate to that modern WoW has moved on past, but really have a strong hook? Whether it be the travel, whether it be the no flying,” mused Brack. “I mean I’m sure you’re familiar with the saga of different kind of flying motifs that we’ve done over the years. I think we finally ended up at a good compromise, but certainly flying will not be a part of Classic.”


Bioelectric Blast (Deadly) - Blasts the target area with electricity. Inflicts 65,654 Nature damage to enemies within 8 yards of the impact and creates a patch of Electrified Ground. Electrified Ground inflicts 14,882 Nature damage every 2 sec to players within it. Shock Burst (Important) - Inflicts 4,377 Nature damage every 2 sec for 12 sec. Upon expiration, strikes all players, inflicting up to 26,261 Nature damage. This damage is reduced the further away players are from the blast. Electric Discharge (Healer Alert) - Wekemara discharges electricity from itself. Inflicts 13,131 Nature damage that chains to additional targets every 1.5 sec. Submerge - Upon reaching 50% health, Wekamara will submerge and summon Spawns of Wekamara. Electrified Splash - While submerged, Wekemara rains electrified water from its pool. Inflicts 21,885 Nature damage to enemies within 3 yards of the impact area. Spawn of Wekemara (Damage Dealer / Tank Alert) Charged Bite - Inflicts Nature damage to an enemy Conductive Spittle - Inflicts Nature damage to an enemy and increases Nature damage taken by 50% for 16 sec. Loot Tables 

This is, in my opinion, the largest change that WoW Classic will have over Vanilla, and it’s something that simply can’t be undone. Back in Vanilla, guilds were very secretive over strategies of how to correctly defeat a boss. Videos of boss kills were virtually non-existent,and strategies on how to itemize and play various classes and specs were hard to come by, especially for newer players. This, in addition to the unforgiving raid requirements and difficult content, lead to a lot of the player base never really getting to see a lot of the endgame content. Those that did rarely ever did so efficiently, and it wasn’t uncommon for the best guild on any given server to take months to complete a raid tier. There is absolutely no way that this happens in Classic. The raids in Vanilla are very much a solved system by now. Every raid, and every boss and trash pack inside, has been thoroughly strategized and talked about to death over the last 14 years. Rest assured even if you and your friends never played Vanilla, someone in your raid party will know exactly what to do on every boss, exactly when the trash packs are going to respawn, and exactly what buffs and gear to get to prepare. That certainly doesn’t mean thatClassic raiding will be a cakewalk, but it will be different than how the majority of people stumbled through the content.

Before work began on World of Warcraft: Classic, it was only possible for players to experience the original World of Warcraft by using private servers, which are illegal, often have stability or corruption problems, and generally are very imperfect recreations of the authentic World of Warcraft experience. As much as Blizzard has been aware of the desires of their community, until recently it seemed impossible for them to emulate Classic servers due to the technical hurdles of essentially having to run two massively multiplayer online games side-by-side. A breakthrough was then achieved that made it possible to run Classic servers on the modern architecture of current World of Warcraft servers.


So we asked ourselves, would it still be possible to deliver an authentic classic experience if we took our modern code, with all its back-end improvements and changes, and used it to process the Patch 1.12 game data? While that might seem counterintuitive, this would inherently include classic systems like skill ranks, old quests and terrain, talents, and so on, while later features like Transmog and Achievements would effectively not exist because they were entirely absent from the data. After weeks of R&D, experimentation, and prototyping, we were confident we could deliver the classic WoW content and gameplay without sacrificing the literally millions of hours put in to back-end development over the past 13 years.
Nov 15 Looking Forward. So simple fun thread to see how you all think and feel. Name 1 thing you are definitely looking forward to, preferably not the obvious stuff but whatever go wild! I'll start with one. Professions aiding in immersion. Not sure if many noticed this but something I am excited about playing a hunter is the professions and how they aid in immersion for the hunter class so freaking well. All of the secondary profs help hunter immersion. Cooking, Fishing and First Aid all actually fueled the hunter lifestyle. Add in Skinning and Leather Working and it's straight up Hunter RPG.Melaned22 Nov 15
Earning gold in World of Warcraft: Classic is all about optimizing your spendings. Back in the day, your character’s skills were acquired from a trainer, using money. Don’t just buy everything he or she offers! Read the skill descriptions and be mindful about them. Quite a few characters can live through the levelling process without learning some of their utility or damage spells. These won’t go anywhere and you’ll be able to learn them later on.
The first—and among the most important—decision we had to make was which version of the game to focus on. As many of you have noted, the classic period was two years long and full of changes. Core features like Battlegrounds were introduced in patches after WoW’s original launch, and class design similarly changed over time. After careful consideration, we decided on Patch 1.12: Drums of War as our foundation, because it represents the most complete version of the classic experience. 

Fifteen years of iterative design means that the World of Warcraft that existed in 2006 is dissimilar to World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth as it exists in 2019, even if you’re playing the same content. The cumulative effect of thousands of tweaks means that pinpointing exactly what made Classic so special is a nebulous undertaking. Flying mounts, for instance, were a welcome addition when they were introduced in The Burning Crusade. It eventually became clear to players, however, that the convenience and fantasy they offered came along with a number of significant drawbacks like reduced interaction with topography, enemy NPCs, and other players. In spite of this, flying limitations are met generally with negative feedback on the part of BFA’s community. Such conveniences are difficult to unlearn.
My main plan will be to focus on raw gold in the beginning. Then I will spend my gold on leveling tailoring and enchanting so I can shuffle enchanting materials which is likely to be very profitable. I already have some shuffle ideas, and I will look for more. Then I’ll work on obtaining the rare enchanting and tailoring recipes to craft those for gold. 
Wait, /sit to trigger crits is p-server thing? I distinctly remember people saying that if you sit, you will be crit when I played 1.12 Vanilla. On top of that - there’s that pally that one shot Kazzak in early Vanilla because he stacked a shitload of reckoning when it didn’t have a limit - it’s not inconceivable that he did it without /sit to trigger crits, but it would take him so, SO long to do that without /sit.
Before work began on World of Warcraft: Classic, it was only possible for players to experience the original World of Warcraft by using private servers, which are illegal, often have stability or corruption problems, and generally are very imperfect recreations of the authentic World of Warcraft experience. As much as Blizzard has been aware of the desires of their community, until recently it seemed impossible for them to emulate Classic servers due to the technical hurdles of essentially having to run two massively multiplayer online games side-by-side. A breakthrough was then achieved that made it possible to run Classic servers on the modern architecture of current World of Warcraft servers.
Similarly to Alliance’s Paladin, Shaman is a unique class option for Horde. Shaman boasts amazing group utility with its strong buffs through totems. Windfury totem is a must in any raid while Bloodlust in Classic is unique to the Shaman class. Restoration Shamans were considered the best group healers while other specs were also amazing in PvP environment capable of dishing out insane burst damage. Additionally, Shamans were able to wear mail armor, so any piece with spell power on mail set piece was almost certainly yours.
Greetings! Development of World of Warcraft Classic is underway, and we’re very excited to share some of the challenges and solutions we’re working on. As we mentioned last BlizzCon, the process of restoring the classic game is not straightforward, and it’s important to us to take the time and effort to get it right—this includes poring over numerous game versions, data, and code; meticulously scrutinizing all the changes we’ve made over the years. Rest assured: The WoW Classic team is hard at work making it a reality, and we’re at a point in development where we’re ready to share some of the things we’ve been working on.
World of Warcraft Classic ist eine originalgetreue Nachbildung des ursprünglichen World of Warcraft. Es läuft auf modernen Rechnern etwas flüssiger, sieht aber noch so aus und fühlt sich auch so an wie das World of Warcraft von 2006. Kampfmechaniken, die ursprünglichen Charaktermodelle und Talentbäume tragen genauso zu der authentischen Erfahrung bei wie eure Interaktionen mit anderen Spielern. Im ursprünglichen World of Warcraft stand im Zentrum die Zusammenarbeit, um es mit der Welt aufzunehmen. Und genauso steht sie auch im Zentrum von World of Warcraft Classic.
It is also worth noting that World of Warcraft Classic isn't exactly an archive from 2006. It has been rebuilt from patch 1.12, using modern data architecture and reaps the benefits of the modern engine. This means a lot of non-controversial quality-of-life features will still be present and it is possible to run WoW Classic servers on modern server architecture. As you can imagine, much has changed in the last 13 years in the tech space. That's before smartphones were even a thing. The modern engine no longer allows certain behaviours that could be used to get out of bounds, also adds widescreen monitor support and accessibility options! However, it does have the disadvantage of not being able to run on 32-bit systems which isn't that kind to older systems considering the game is from 2006.
Once we had our starting point, we began taking stock of what we had in the source code and what we could make available, which included restoring the original development database from archival backups. After stitching various key pieces together, we had a locally rebuilt version of Patch 1.12 running internally. The team could create characters and do basic questing and leveling—and dying, which we did many times. For testing purposes. Obviously.
My main plan will be to focus on raw gold in the beginning. Then I will spend my gold on leveling tailoring and enchanting so I can shuffle enchanting materials which is likely to be very profitable. I already have some shuffle ideas, and I will look for more. Then I’ll work on obtaining the rare enchanting and tailoring recipes to craft those for gold. 
While this might be a change for the better,leveling in Classic will most certainly be different than leveling in Vanilla. In addition to sharding making the beginner zones much more friendly to the hordes and hordes of players storming the gates when Classic comes out, theVanilla leveling process has been studied thoroughly since the game came out 14years ago. Since then, not only have players leveled multiple alts and characters through the beginning zones in Vanilla, but they have done so on a multitude of private servers intended to have the most ‘Blizzlike’ experience. So while leveling a character from 1 to 60 will still be a long, arduous process, it will no longer be marred by mistakes made by players going from zone to zone, continent to continent, searching desperately for a place to level. The zones and routes have been thoroughly mapped out by the Vanilla WoW community at large, and with the internet being much more robust in 2019, that information is just a google search away. Is that a bad thing? I would venture to say that it isn’t, as knowing where to go and what to do doesn’t make it any less challenging and time consuming. It does take away from that exploration aspect,however. You might not have those moments of wandering into Feralas for the first time, or running from Storm wind to Strangle thorn just for the hell of it,or getting lost trying to get to Iron forge from Darnassus on a fresh Night elf.No, those moments, just like many fond memories of Vanilla, are lost in time.
We’ll be performing our first stress test for WoW Classic on Wednesday, May 22, from 4–6pm PDT. During this time, the closed beta test realm will be unavailable. Those who are currently in the beta test will only be able to login to the stress test realm during this time and beta testers can participate using their existing installation. We’ll also be adding a significant number of players to the stress test from the pool of people who have already opted in for the beta but have not yet been selected.

Fifteen years of iterative design means that the World of Warcraft that existed in 2006 is dissimilar to World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth as it exists in 2019, even if you’re playing the same content. The cumulative effect of thousands of tweaks means that pinpointing exactly what made Classic so special is a nebulous undertaking. Flying mounts, for instance, were a welcome addition when they were introduced in The Burning Crusade. It eventually became clear to players, however, that the convenience and fantasy they offered came along with a number of significant drawbacks like reduced interaction with topography, enemy NPCs, and other players. In spite of this, flying limitations are met generally with negative feedback on the part of BFA’s community. Such conveniences are difficult to unlearn.


While our initial effort helped us determine the experience we wanted to provide, this second prototype really defined how we’d get there. Starting from a modern architecture—with all its security and stability changes—means the team’s efforts can be focused on pursuing an authentic classic experience. Any differences in behavior between our development builds and the patch 1.12 reference can be systematically cataloged and corrected, while still operating from a foundation that’s stable and secure.
The Horde levels 50-60 guide has been rewritten and revamped.  My 1-60 Horde leveling guide is now completely updated for the 1.12 Drums of War patch.  As you can see it is about 15% larger than the 40-50 guide (single largest guide page yet).  There is also a lot of route changes.  I moved the entire Silithus section from level 55 to level 58, which allowed me to include a lot more quests for that zone.  There is also a lot of other improvement to the route, including adding a lot more quests into the guide, mostly from Moonglade, Silithus and Eastern Plaguelands.  This will make the final level 59 grind much shorter.
This past BlizzCon, Blizzard announced thatWoW Classic would be coming out in the Summer of 2019. Along with it came a demo of the early leveling zones and several panels worth of information that assured the eager public that Classic would indeed be as faithful and ‘blizzlike’ as possible. Having played through the entire demo I can agree that the game is almost exactly as I remember Vanilla being 14 years ago. The only difference in design being the implementation of ‘sharding’, a process which splits up the player base in different instances of the same zone to alleviate some of the overcrowding in early zones. Blizzard has also gone on the record to say that sharding would only be in the game for the first couple weeks after the launch of Classic and that they would then disable it once the player base had spread out more. However, sharding isn’t the only thing thatVanilla players might find different about their experience. In this article, I am going to go through each of the aspects that will most likely change inClassic WoW, whether Blizzard likes it or not.
The argument for this is simple: what makes classic WoW great to one player might be different from what makes it great for another. And who are Blizzard's designers to say which old features were just good or bad design for each player? It's an approach that shows Blizzard believes (at least to some degree) that WoW doesn't just belong to its creators but to its fans. That struggle between authorial intent or game design orthodoxy and "the player is always right" is at the heart of many of gaming's big contemporary controversies. But so far, Blizzard seems committed to its plan with regard to WoW Classic.
All the work we’re doing will ultimately allow us to recreate an authentic classic experience on a platform that is much more optimized and stable, helping us avoid latency and stability issues. Additional improvements will include modern anti-cheat/botting detection, customer service and Battle.net integration, and similar conveniences that do not affect the core gameplay experience.
My own experience with the WoW Classic beta in the past few days has reaffirmed my longstanding suspicion that the MMO genre ran out of gas entirely too soon. The motifs of progression, classes, and challenging raid content have successfully disseminated into other genres at this point but these concepts are much more interesting when applied to a dynamic, communal space. I hope that both fans and developers will discover that World of Warcraft Classic has lessons left to teach when it releases on August 27th.
Nov 15 Looking Forward. So simple fun thread to see how you all think and feel. Name 1 thing you are definitely looking forward to, preferably not the obvious stuff but whatever go wild! I'll start with one. Professions aiding in immersion. Not sure if many noticed this but something I am excited about playing a hunter is the professions and how they aid in immersion for the hunter class so freaking well. All of the secondary profs help hunter immersion. Cooking, Fishing and First Aid all actually fueled the hunter lifestyle. Add in Skinning and Leather Working and it's straight up Hunter RPG.Melaned22 Nov 15
Once we had our starting point, we began taking stock of what we had in the source code and what we could make available, which included restoring the original development database from archival backups. After stitching various key pieces together, we had a locally rebuilt version of Patch 1.12 running internally. The team could create characters and do basic questing and leveling—and dying, which we did many times. For testing purposes. Obviously.

Since the same client is used for both our stress test users and our normal beta users, the name in the Battle.net App has changed to “Beta & Stress Test: WoW Classic. ” If you’ve been selected to participate in the stress test, you’ll see this option appear in the Region/Account drop down menu so you can download and install the WoW Classic client in advance, but you’ll only be able to see the stress test realm when it becomes available.
 ":"  -  Any time a step ends in a ":" instead of a "." means that the next step is part of the current step you are on.  This generally means the next step should be done while working on the current step.  This means every "start working on" or "continue working on" will end in a ":".  But this is used with other occasions as well, so keep this in mind.
It is a great advantage to start making some silver and your first gold coin at low levels already. Skinning is a nice choice here. Fast and easy way to gather resources, leather of all kinds while leveling for those who are at the race to level 60. There are many good spots to grind beast mobs and skin them. I like doing it as a Troll Hunter, trolls have a passive racial ability: + 5% bonus damage against beasts.

Who is Joana?  Joana, (AKA Mancow, or FuriousPaul) speedran 1-60 vanilla WoW from 2005 - 2007.  I have been server first to level 60 seven times in a row, along with winning Blizzard's "First to level 50" contest they held back in 2006.  I also have the fastest time through original vanilla 1-60 WoW in 4 days 20 hours. I have produced a very useful 1-60 horde speed leveling guide along with a 1-60 speedrun video.


Fifteen years of iterative design means that the World of Warcraft that existed in 2006 is dissimilar to World of Warcraft: Battle for Azeroth as it exists in 2019, even if you’re playing the same content. The cumulative effect of thousands of tweaks means that pinpointing exactly what made Classic so special is a nebulous undertaking. Flying mounts, for instance, were a welcome addition when they were introduced in The Burning Crusade. It eventually became clear to players, however, that the convenience and fantasy they offered came along with a number of significant drawbacks like reduced interaction with topography, enemy NPCs, and other players. In spite of this, flying limitations are met generally with negative feedback on the part of BFA’s community. Such conveniences are difficult to unlearn.
This is for those who want to own a piece of Vanilla WoW history!  This tier requires your physical mailing address so I can mail you the printed paperback binded mini leveling guide/book.  By default I will sign "Joana" on each book!  If you wish for me to write something else out (such as my real name) you can request that as well.  And finally, thank you for the support and I will continue to make the best leveling guides for WoW!
On August 27, veterans and newcomers will be able to relive World of Warcraft’s epic origins as they assemble a 40-player raid to take on the fiery hazards of Molten Core; fight for their faction in the ongoing world PvP struggle between Southshore and Tarren Mill; muster a realm-wide war effort to open the gates of Ahn’Qiraj; and much more. Click HERE to see the content release plan!
Now that you know to loot everything (see tip #1), you’ll have a lot of items in your bags. Any item that is white quality or greater may sell on the Auction House. How do you know what will sell well on the auction house? Trade goods and green quality (or better) items will almost always sell on the Auction House. See our Auction House guide (coming soon!) for more information.

 ":"  -  Any time a step ends in a ":" instead of a "." means that the next step is part of the current step you are on.  This generally means the next step should be done while working on the current step.  This means every "start working on" or "continue working on" will end in a ":".  But this is used with other occasions as well, so keep this in mind.
We’ll be performing our first stress test for WoW Classic on Wednesday, May 22, from 4–6pm PDT. During this time, the closed beta test realm will be unavailable. Those who are currently in the beta test will only be able to login to the stress test realm during this time and beta testers can participate using their existing installation. We’ll also be adding a significant number of players to the stress test from the pool of people who have already opted in for the beta but have not yet been selected.
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